Planetary Gear Reduction

Many “gears” are used for automobiles, but they are also used for many various other machines. The most typical one is the “tranny” that conveys the power of engine to tires. There are broadly two functions the transmission of a car plays : one is definitely to decelerate the high rotation swiftness emitted by the engine to transmit to tires; the other is to change the reduction ratio relative to the acceleration / deceleration or traveling speed of a car.
The rotation speed of an automobile’s engine in the general state of generating amounts to 1 1,000 – 4,000 rotations each and every minute (17 – 67 per second). Since it is not possible to rotate tires with the same rotation swiftness to perform, it is required to lower the rotation speed utilizing the ratio of the number of gear teeth. Such a role is called deceleration; the ratio of the rotation speed of engine and that of wheels is called the reduction ratio.
Then, exactly why is it necessary to change the reduction ratio relative to the acceleration / deceleration or driving speed ? This is because substances need a large force to start moving however they do not require this kind of a large force to excersice once they have began to move. Automobile can be cited as a good example. An engine, nevertheless, by its nature can’t so finely change its output. As a result, one adjusts its result by changing the reduction ratio utilizing a transmission.
The transmission of motive power through gears very much resembles the principle of leverage (a lever). The ratio of the amount of tooth of gears meshing with one another can be deemed as the ratio of the length of levers’ arms. That’s, if the reduction ratio is large and the rotation speed as output is lower in comparison to that as input, the power output by tranny (torque) will be huge; if the rotation quickness as output is not so lower in comparison compared to that as insight, on the other hand, the power output by tranny (torque) will be little. Thus, to improve the reduction ratio utilizing transmission is much akin to the basic principle of moving things.
Then, how does a tranny alter the reduction ratio ? The answer lies in the mechanism called a planetary equipment mechanism.
A planetary gear mechanism is a gear system comprising 4 components, namely, sunlight gear A, several world gears B, internal gear C and carrier D that connects planet gears as seen in the graph below. It includes a very complex structure rendering its design or production most challenging; it can understand the high decrease ratio through gears, however, it really is a mechanism suited to a reduction mechanism that requires both little size and high performance such as for example transmission for automobiles.
In a planetary gearbox, many teeth are involved at once, which allows high speed decrease to be performed with relatively small gears and lower inertia reflected back to the electric motor. Having multiple teeth discuss the load also allows planetary gears to transmit high degrees of torque. The combination of compact size, large speed decrease and high torque transmission makes planetary gearboxes a favorite choice for space-constrained applications.
But planetary gearboxes do have some disadvantages. Their complexity in style and manufacturing tends to make them a far more expensive remedy than various other gearbox types. And precision production is extremely important for these gearboxes. If one planetary equipment is positioned closer to the sun gear compared to the others, imbalances in the planetary gears can occur, leading to premature wear and failing. Also, the compact footprint of planetary gears makes high temperature dissipation more difficult, so applications that operate at very high speed or experience continuous operation may require cooling.
When utilizing a “standard” (i.e. inline) planetary gearbox, the motor and the driven equipment must be inline with each other, although manufacturers provide right-angle designs that integrate other gear sets (frequently bevel gears with helical the teeth) to provide an offset between the input and output.
Input power (max)27 kW (36 hp)
Input speed (max)2800 rpm2
Output torque (intermittent)12,880 Nm(9,500 lb-ft)
Output torque (continuous)8,135 Nm (6,000 lb-ft)
1 Actual ratio would depend on the drive configuration.
2 Max input speed linked to ratio and max output speed
3 Max radial load positioned at optimum load position
4 Weight varies with configuration and ratio selected
5 Requires tapered roller planet bearings (unavailable with all ratios)
Approximate dry weight100 -181 kg (220 – 400 lb)4
Radial load (max)14,287kg (31,500 lb)3
Drive typeSpeed reducer
Hydraulic electric motor input SAE C or D hydraulic
Precision Planetary Reducers
This standard selection of Precision Planetary Reducers are ideal for use in applications that demand powerful, precise positioning and repeatability. They were specifically developed for make use of with state-of-the-art servo engine technology, providing tight integration of the electric motor to the unit. Style features include mounting any servo motors, regular low backlash, high torsional stiffness, 95 to 97% efficiency and tranquil running.
They are available in nine sizes with reduction ratios from 3:1 to 600:1 and result torque capacities up to 16,227 lb.ft. The output could be provided with a solid shaft or ISO 9409-1 flange, for mounting to rotary or indexing tables, pinion gears, pulleys or other drive elements without the need for a coupling. For high precision applications, backlash levels right down to 1 arc-minute are available. Right-angle and insight shaft versions of these reducers are also offered.
Common applications for these reducers include precision rotary axis drives, traveling gantries & columns, materials handling axis drives and digital line shafting. Industries offered include Material Handling, Automation, Aerospace, Machine Tool and Robotics.
Unit Design &
Construction
Gearing: Featuring case-hardened & surface gearing with minimal wear, low backlash and low noise, making them the most accurate and efficient planetaries available. Standard planetary design has three planet gears, with an increased torque version using four planets also available, please see the Reducers with Output Flange chart on the machine Ratings tab beneath the “+” unit sizes.
Bearings: Optional output bearing configurations for software specific radial load, axial load and tilting moment reinforcement. Oversized tapered roller bearings are regular for the ISO Planetary Gear Reduction flanged Reducers.
Housing: Single piece metal housing with integral ring gear provides greater concentricity and remove speed fluctuations. The casing can be installed with a ventilation module to increase insight speeds and lower operational temperature ranges.
Output: Available in a solid shaft with optional keyway or an ISO 9409-1 flanged interface. You can expect a wide selection of standard pinions to mount right to the output style of your choice.
Unit Selection
These reducers are usually selected based on the peak cycle forces, which often happen during accelerations and decelerations. These cycle forces depend on the driven load, the quickness vs. time profile for the cycle, and any other exterior forces acting on the axis.
For application & selection assistance, please call, fax or email us. Your application information will be reviewed by our engineers, who’ll recommend the very best solution for your application.
Ever-Power Automation’s Gearbox product lines offer high precision in affordable prices! The Planetary Gearbox product offering contains both In-Line and Right-Angle configurations, built with the look goal of offering a cost-effective gearbox, without sacrificing quality. These Planetary Gearboxes are available in sizes from 40mm to 180mm, ideal for motors ranging from NEMA 17 to NEMA 42 and bigger. The Spur Gearbox line offers an efficient, cost-effective choice compatible with Ever-Power Automation’s AC Induction Gear Motors. Ever-Power Automation’s Gearboxes can be found in up to 30 different equipment ratios, with torque rankings up to 10,488 in-pounds (167,808 oz-in), and are compatible with most Servo,
SureGear Planetary Gearboxes for Little Ever-Power Motors
The SureGear PGCN series is a good gearbox value for servo, stepper, and other movement control applications requiring a NEMA size input/output interface. It offers the best quality designed for the price point.
Features
Wide range of ratios (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100:1)
Low backlash of 30 arc-min or less
20,000 hour service life
Free of maintenance; requires no additional lubrication
NEMA sizes 17, 23, and 34
Includes hardware for mounting to SureStep stepper motors
Optional shaft bushings available for mounting to other motors
1-year warranty
Applications
Material handling
Pick and place
Automation
Packaging
Various other motion control applications requiring a Ever-Power input/output
Spur gears certainly are a type of cylindrical equipment, with shafts that are parallel and coplanar, and tooth that are straight and oriented parallel to the shafts. They’re arguably the simplest and most common type of gear – easy to manufacture and suitable for a range of applications.
One’s teeth of a spur gear ‘ve got an involute profile and mesh one tooth simultaneously. The involute type implies that spur gears just generate radial forces (no axial forces), however the approach to tooth meshing causes ruthless on the gear the teeth and high sound creation. Because of this, spur gears are usually used for lower swiftness applications, although they could be utilized at nearly every speed.
An involute gear tooth carries a profile this is actually the involute of a circle, which implies that since two gears mesh, they get in touch with at an individual point where the involutes fulfill. This aspect actions along the tooth areas as the gears rotate, and the type of force ( referred to as the line of activities ) is usually tangent to both base circles. Hence, the gears adhere to the fundamental regulation of gearing, which claims that the ratio of the gears’ angular velocities must stay continuous throughout the mesh.
Spur gears could possibly be produced from metals such as steel or brass, or from plastics such as for example nylon or polycarbonate. Gears produced from plastic produce much less audio, but at the trouble of power and loading capacity. Unlike other products types, spur gears don’t encounter high losses due to slippage, therefore they often have high transmission overall performance. Multiple spur gears can be utilized in series ( referred to as a gear teach ) to realize large reduction ratios.
There are two primary types of spur gears: external and internal. Exterior gears have got the teeth that are cut externally surface area of the cylinder. Two exterior gears mesh with each other and rotate in reverse directions. Internal gears, on the other hand, have tooth that are cut inside surface of the cylinder. An external gear sits within the internal equipment, and the gears rotate in the same direction. Because the shafts are positioned closer together, internal equipment assemblies are smaller sized than external equipment assemblies. Internal gears are primarily used for planetary equipment drives.
Spur gears are generally seen as best for applications that want speed reduction and torque multiplication, such as for example ball mills and crushing equipment. Examples of high- velocity applications that make use of spur gears – despite their high noise amounts – include consumer appliances such as washing machines and blenders. Even though noise limits the use of spur gears in passenger automobiles, they are often found in aircraft engines, trains, and even bicycles.

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